Neuroscience

Articles and news from the latest research reports.

245 notes

Extroverts have more sensitive brain-reward system
Extroverts may be more outgoing and cheerful in part because of their brain chemistry, reports a study by Cornell neuroscientists.
People’s brains respond differently to rewards, say the neuroscientists. Some people’s brains release more of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which ultimately gives them more reasons to be excited and engaged with the world, says Richard Depue, professor of human development in the College of Human Ecology, who co-authored the study with graduate student Yu Fu.
Their study, published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience in June, sheds new light on how differences in the way the brain responds to reward translate into extraverted behavior, the authors say.
“Rewards like food, sex and social interactions as well as more abstract goals such as money or getting a degree trigger the release of dopamine in the brain, producing positive emotions and feelings of desire that motivate us to work toward obtaining those goals. In extroverts, this dopamine response to rewards is more robust so they experience more frequent activation of strong positive emotions,” Depue says.
“Dopamine also facilitates memory for circumstances that are associated with the reward. Our findings suggest this plays a significant role in sustaining extroverted behavior,” Depue adds. “The extroverts in our study showed greater association of context with reward than introverts, which means that over time, extroverts will acquire a more extensive network of reward-context memories that activate their brain’s reward system.”
Over a week, the researchers engaged 70 young adult males – a mix of introverts and extroverts according to a standard personality test – in a set of laboratory tasks that included viewing brief video clips of several aspects of the lab environment. On the first four days, some participants received a low dose of the stimulant methylphenidate (MP), also known as Ritalin, which triggers the release of dopamine in the brain; the others received either a placebo or MP in a different lab location. The team tested how strongly participants associated contextual cues in the lab (presented in video clips) with reward (the dopamine rush induced by MP) by assessing changes in their working memory, motor speed at a finger-tapping task and positive emotions (all known to be influenced by dopamine).
Participants who had unconsciously associated contextual cues in the lab with the reward were expected to have greater dopamine release/reward system activation on day 4 compared with day 1 when shown the same video clips. This so-called “associative conditioning” response is exactly what the team found in the extroverts. The extroverts strongly associated the lab context with reward feelings, whereas the introverts showed little to no evidence of associative conditioning.
 “At a broader level, the study begins to illuminate how individual differences in brain functioning interact with environmental influences to create behavioral variation. This knowledge may someday help us to understand how such interactions create more extreme forms of emotional behavior, such as personality disorders,” says Depue.

Extroverts have more sensitive brain-reward system

Extroverts may be more outgoing and cheerful in part because of their brain chemistry, reports a study by Cornell neuroscientists.

People’s brains respond differently to rewards, say the neuroscientists. Some people’s brains release more of the neurotransmitter dopamine, which ultimately gives them more reasons to be excited and engaged with the world, says Richard Depue, professor of human development in the College of Human Ecology, who co-authored the study with graduate student Yu Fu.

Their study, published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience in June, sheds new light on how differences in the way the brain responds to reward translate into extraverted behavior, the authors say.

“Rewards like food, sex and social interactions as well as more abstract goals such as money or getting a degree trigger the release of dopamine in the brain, producing positive emotions and feelings of desire that motivate us to work toward obtaining those goals. In extroverts, this dopamine response to rewards is more robust so they experience more frequent activation of strong positive emotions,” Depue says.

“Dopamine also facilitates memory for circumstances that are associated with the reward. Our findings suggest this plays a significant role in sustaining extroverted behavior,” Depue adds. “The extroverts in our study showed greater association of context with reward than introverts, which means that over time, extroverts will acquire a more extensive network of reward-context memories that activate their brain’s reward system.”

Over a week, the researchers engaged 70 young adult males – a mix of introverts and extroverts according to a standard personality test – in a set of laboratory tasks that included viewing brief video clips of several aspects of the lab environment. On the first four days, some participants received a low dose of the stimulant methylphenidate (MP), also known as Ritalin, which triggers the release of dopamine in the brain; the others received either a placebo or MP in a different lab location. The team tested how strongly participants associated contextual cues in the lab (presented in video clips) with reward (the dopamine rush induced by MP) by assessing changes in their working memory, motor speed at a finger-tapping task and positive emotions (all known to be influenced by dopamine).

Participants who had unconsciously associated contextual cues in the lab with the reward were expected to have greater dopamine release/reward system activation on day 4 compared with day 1 when shown the same video clips. This so-called “associative conditioning” response is exactly what the team found in the extroverts. The extroverts strongly associated the lab context with reward feelings, whereas the introverts showed little to no evidence of associative conditioning.

 “At a broader level, the study begins to illuminate how individual differences in brain functioning interact with environmental influences to create behavioral variation. This knowledge may someday help us to understand how such interactions create more extreme forms of emotional behavior, such as personality disorders,” says Depue.

Filed under extroverts dopamine reward system associative conditioning neuroscience science

  1. lyssa-erin reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  2. wennytime reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  3. sassafras-manson reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  4. sandmans-tan-sudan reblogged this from revenant-heroine
  5. reflectingiridescent reblogged this from acidicangels
  6. acidicangels reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  7. christyycakess reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  8. johanen reblogged this from jackoshadows
  9. theluoma reblogged this from sagansense
  10. lindgrenmatthew reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  11. helpingpetsbehave reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  12. talesofadepressedman reblogged this from neurosciencestuff and added:
    Good read.
  13. hauntedbyindifference reblogged this from sagansense and added:
    FINALLY
  14. ofthenocti reblogged this from scifigeneration
  15. scifigeneration reblogged this from neurosciencestuff and added:
    Extroverts have more sensitive brain-reward system Extroverts may be more outgoing and cheerful in part because of their...
  16. rurounidrew reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  17. bitterflyfly reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  18. mindretrofit7 reblogged this from painspeaks
  19. feligrrrosa reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  20. ah-thenah reblogged this from sagansense
  21. satanicpizzaparty reblogged this from sagansense
  22. goodbookspluswarmdrinks reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  23. mangy-mongrel reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  24. genqueue reblogged this from syncopaticremedy
  25. mijookie-inactive reblogged this from revenant-heroine
  26. minhonoo reblogged this from ojbh
  27. avidlyinconsistent reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
  28. merelyperception reblogged this from neurosciencestuff
free counters