It’s the least understood organ in the human body: the brain, a massive network of electrically excitable neurons, all communicating with one another via receptors on their tree-like dendrites. Somehow these cells work together to enable great feats of human learning and memory. But how?
Researchers know dendritic spines play a vital role. These tiny membranous structures protrude from dendrites’ branches; spread across the entire dendritic tree, the spines on one neuron collect signals from an average of 1,000 others. But more than a century after they were discovered, their function still remains only partially understood.
A Northwestern University researcher, working in collaboration with scientists at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) Janelia Farm Research Campus, has recently added an important piece of the puzzle of how neurons “talk” to one another. The researchers have demonstrated that spines serve as electrical compartments in the neuron, isolating and amplifying electrical signals received at the synapses, the sites at which neurons connect to one another.
The key to this discovery is the result of innovative experiments at the Janelia Farm Research Campus and computer simulations performed at Northwestern University that can measure electrical responses on spines throughout the dendrites.
A paper about the findings, “Synaptic Amplification by Dendritic Spines Enhances Input Cooperatively,” was published November 22 in the journal Nature.
“This research conclusively shows that dendritic spines respond to and process synaptic inputs not just chemically, but also electrically,” said William Kath, professor of engineering sciences and applied mathematics at Northwestern’s McCormick School of Engineering, professor of neurobiology at the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, and one of the paper’s authors.